Here, R = Clock rate which can be measured by the inverse of Clock cycle time that means, R = 1/T. EE 4720 Lecture Transparency. Performance Equation - I • CPU execution time for a program = CPU clock cycles x Clock cycle time • Clock cycle time = 1 / Clock speed-If a processor has a frequency of 3 GHz, the clock ticks 3 billion times in a second – as we’ll soon see, with each clock tick, one or more/less instructions may complete. 2. endobj CPU Performance Equation - Pipelining A. Ardö, EIT Lecture 6: EITF20 Computer Architecture November 13, 2013 4 / 56. logoonly Summary Pipelining - Implementation Problem Simple Scoreboard Tomasulo Tomasulo + Speculation Static Sch Dynamic Scheduling RAW forwarding wait (Read) CDB CDB CPU Performance Equation Time for task =C T I C =Average # Cycles per instruction T =Time per cycle I =Instructions per task Pipelining { e.g. <>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 1024.08 768] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> ��2���~�*�����;K)��ú���=���b��q�b���#a�ZZ5%د��5G7�����1�5���RzMO�d�����X���=�?U!�T@MYG4ӝ|� �v���#*��a�({�b=/�Y��XA���%\��ro��:L&ȴ��d�+�?H��K,�҇��5��׭������|�b̝�E���Fqr��=p>�)�d��jo��G����l��j����4�v��2��K������Ⱦ�?�����7LSݬZb��F��v��ޝ���X���h�`r�p|��˷��dW�#�b!�D{�e� ��D�+���ky����I{��k���3 W\'2q�O�|ƞ`W��x\2��Gw�K�"i�UϏ��m��+��8��q�&�o�u���9$-�M�QJ֢eFx�������� 8 0 obj extern INT8U ping; while(1) /* endless loop – spin in … %PDF-1.4 %���� Background loop with an “observation” variable. 0000002254 00000 n The exponential processor transistor growth predicted by Moore does not always translate into exponentially greater practical CPU performance.  For example, with a base CPI of 1, the CPU time from the last page is: CPU time = (I+ 0.2 I) x Cycle time  What if we could doublethe CPU performance so the CPI becomes 0.5, but memory performance … endobj If 30% of the execution time may be the subject of a speedup, p will be 0.3; if the improvement makes the affected part twice as fast, s will be 2. 02-1. CPU Time = I * CPI * T. I = number of instructions in program. Here, I = Total number instructions in a program. CPU Performance Decomposed into Three Components: • Clock Frequency (φ ) … … Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. x����O�0�����#�ؾ���B�G41�R�p�s�d�����L���k_���Z�����g���Y������C! Across the reactor itself equation for plug flow gives, -----(1) Where F’A0 would be the feed rate of A if the stream entering the reactor (fresh feed plus recycle) were unconverted. 0000001291 00000 n 0000002218 00000 n To calculate the parallelization efficiency, you need to use a mathematical equation called Amdahl's Law. x��}[�]9n�{������tH;��� P�v��N�]�.��]�����~D~$�u|��v� ~�q�iQ"u�DQ�Ǔ�����? Performance Equation - I CPU execution time = CPU clock cycles x Clock cycle time Clock cycle time = 1 / Clock speed If a processor has a frequency of 3 GHz, the clock ticks 3 billion times in a second – as we’ll soon see, with each clock tick, one or more/less instructions may complete If a program runs for 10 seconds on a 3 GHz processor, how many clock cycles did it run for? 164 15 † Instruction Count (IC) Determined by program, compiler, and ISA. �?.yWu�����7%>����?=���϶.����+DKG+�΢�z�i}�e$�vi�\�}�����@�����ͳ�n����?�z}��q�yy�=So~��oWʪЅ�zI=�f����w���ǟ�+� CPU Performance Equation: ACA- Lecture CPU Performance Equation: ACA- Lecture Execution Time (T): T: CPU time (seconds/program) needed to execute a program. 0000002500 00000 n Since around 2005–2007, Dennard scaling has ended, so even though Moore's law continued for several years after that, it has not yielded dividends in improved performance. r%H�,���Ȃ^�i�+�. Many processors expose performance-monitoring counters that help measure 'productive performance' associated with workloads. [10] What is the CPU performance equation, and what do the variables refer to? Design Alternative 2: Reduce average CPI of all FP instruction to 2. 0000000596 00000 n 02-2. However, if a system supports Collaborative Processor Performance Control (CPPC), which is a new alternative mode of performance communication between the operating system and the hardware (defined in ACPI 5.0), Turbo may be engaged if the Windows operating system dynamically requests … %%EOF since the clock rate is the inverse of clock cycle time: CPU time = Instruction count *CPI / Clock rate . This equation can then be rearranged to find the volume of the CSTR based on the flow rates and the reaction rate: From the definition of conversion, F A = F Ao (1-X) or F Ao - F A = F Ao X, so the equation can be rewritten: Back to the Solution. 164 0 obj <> endobj Write down the CPU performance equation and define each of the terms. stream T = N X S / R . <> 100% (3 ratings) The Processor Performance Equation is,CPUTime ,T= (Instruction Count* CPI) / Clock rate. ȓ�4�Qg��8@�:|��Q���@��@J�п���s�:��F�����$��܉�I�͞�����j����%�qR�����O�--��f� ��'|O�~ NM�\44k�a�K�u��dJAxLI �o](݅",o3��L��I�o`n\gn���d{�O� d�uqQ�o���f����T/�꼪�I�f8��8�%��k~�o��ñ{�oV�Ia�� Equations: CPU Time = I * T * CPI. Derivation Of Performance Equation Consider a recycle reactor with nomenclature as shown in figure. 20% of the dynamic instructions in an application are multiplies. Many processors expose performance-monitoring counters that help measure 'productive performance' associated with workloads. <>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 1024.08 768] /Contents 10 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 1>> b. Execution time: CPI * I * 1/CR CPI = Cycles Per Instruction I = Instructions. 166 0 obj<>stream 0000006470 00000 n Previous question Next question. 02-2. CPU Time = I * CPI / R. R = 1/T the clock rate. endobj 0000005309 00000 n <>>> endobj Basic Performance Equation. • Describes the performance gains by enhancing one part of the overall system (code, computer) • Amdahl’s Law depends on two factors: – Fraction of the execution time affected by enhancement – The improvement gained by the enhancement for this fraction org … {�Yux�T�Jx�ny�x�r�Se���M][P"Su� ���'���d �MV�j^��t�Q�?��W�[G{��#6Np)y�e�� 6. Ic: Number of Instructions in a given program. T or R are usually published as performance measures for a processor. 2N���eQ|)�'��� 脁 �T� a�X�@�Ȝ4{9�i��R������XM�����t�L�_�3ˉ�b�&B�)ѓzW5B%��d�/�lj���K�!,��>C�q�!`���3X#l�~��T9X�r�.���z�l�����b}W�V���\҉� �~�kt��3�'ҏ�>�몥��u�����P�����C��l�D�9��xE�;�"��a��?ag(k+ vt)4���w�v'����akEsW���.�Ͷ�޵�q�[�W?V��(!U������o;A�g?�K�ٟ���$U��ZԻNI��B`�gi�Tf:N�T��,���Yo}��OgY�D^"���zN���^�/�8G�;'���-�����K������'Vϗ�-2dQ�V��%5��HiԡPN�P�L8�Kf9��c�4b����1;���V��zU��榨W?��O��]��>��su&�4�+g��郝嵁*�@BE���4J>q�����GY4�����js��6U���rYo�ۛ��W�SA���8�,�e掚j�2��i��/=Pwm����j�$��V�_���i��)�媮`�뫗��b5*�U���kM}���M�k�%����̓�7o���U�l���j�>erCt(U��#"����N���� The hydrologic uncertainty processor (HUP) has been widely employed in hydrological uncertainty prediction. CPU Performance Decomposed into Three Components: † Clock Frequency (`) Determined by technology and in°uenced by organization. A new processor cuts the CPI for multiplies from 10 to 5 but increases the cycle time by 10%. Frequency of FP instructions : 25% Average CPI of FP instructions : 4.0 Average CPI of other instructions : 1.33 Frequency of FPSQR = 2% CPI of FPSQR = 20 Design Alternative 1: Reduce CPI of FPSQR from 20 to 2. Put an X where the column heading can effect the row label. 1. <> 0000002577 00000 n endstream endobj 165 0 obj<> endobj 167 0 obj<> endobj 168 0 obj<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/ExtGState<>>> endobj 169 0 obj<> endobj 170 0 obj[/ICCBased 178 0 R] endobj 171 0 obj<> endobj 172 0 obj<> endobj 173 0 obj<>stream In this dissertation we propose and investigate a new approach to CPU performance evaluation. 7 0 obj -��d�h���8�"���2��hPvM���,Xv��kF+��F}���[�)G�ג*`�֤*L�(e? A Note About Instruction Count •. Latency = InstCount * CPI * cycle time 2. † Clocks per Instruction (CPI) Determined by ISA, microarchitecture, compiler, and program. The instruction count in the performance equation is the “dynamic”instruction count. CPU time = (CPU execution cycles + Memory stall cycles) x Cycle time  Processor performance traditionally outpaces memory performance, so the memory system is often the system bottleneck. Analysis of CPU Performance Equation • CPU time = Instruction count * CPI / Clock rate • How to improve (i.e. • The CPI can be divided into TWO component terms; endobj "��֤��4i���+ꀹ��ZqK��ҩ=M��~�ͼ�\��*G�� �e맀 �w��o`�k�]��T�D�➳dۤ��`���%�@vl���� ������@6�R�``P�� �L@Aa�����1D�L C��`�8�\b��R��� *(���Jģ�E)4lR0���e�D��1��@'2)�F �J�`'�Ft40 CPU Performance Equation - Example 3. endobj 0000005828 00000 n Hydrological forecasting plays an important role in basin flood control systems, and the uncertainty of hydrological forecasting is helpful to reveal basin hydrological characteristics and provide support to decision makers in formulating water resources management schemes. Time reference in a computer is provided by a clock. Gate coach faculty is explaining CRE topic- performance equation of CSTR. <> endobj [10] CPU performance analysis a. endobj Formatted 9:28, 16 March 2012 from lsli02. ��m6V�eM8��g�r��g�$z)�4n�����#��$�ͅ�U�J�IF}g�F9�07}+�|�;��*��j����ɏ)�yB��3��;5/�gQ�E� �&�Mցpi�LxǨ�ɸF��[{��v':$��:Ezt��h���h>��ɰ����Տ�X -ȟ����OIڷ��~�l���m)�'*E�R�E��\���Hޅ�ҏ�$���)�������'���Yז� � �&. <<7e7a3d90fdc37640984a528515d9873c>]>> CPI: Cycle per Instruction. CPU performance equation is one way to start answering these questions. T = clock cycle time. f~�p��La���"e��q�� ���4��e���-)��y��8P��L�,ۿ�'�������B$���t-�N�P�ptx�X��ьG�xBU��\���lʳ��j�����&��Lԑ� Basic Performance Equation. <> stream ��) WId�hH'����ހ�n� �@����)L�����-�� �ӤE��� �X��b��������»��AK �J�]l�is�#q �� � �L� Productive performance is typically represented by scale factor, a term that refers to the extent of stalls compared with stall-free cycles within a time window. 0000001647 00000 n oYxO��d�+��q�R���jۍ��n��2��$b>��q�Q�\��}ޢnk'ż"�>9�����q�85����ʎ��L���Dk=ur���V�c�2�+��S�r�n�~o'��A�h�8V�L�X�� xref u� t��˳���&� ���[��z�Q��������� CPI = Clocks needed to complete an instruction. These combined to form CPU Performance Equation tT = 1 ` £CPI£IC, (pD��+�\�b �9��@�PȞ��c CPU performance equation. CPU Clock Cycle (This equation is commonly known as the CPU performance equation) (executed, I) CPI = Cycles Per Instruction Executed (I) 0000001509 00000 n The equation is named after Joseph Boussinesq, who rst derived it in response to John Scott Russell’s observation of the "wave of translation" (also known as a solitary wave or soliton). 0 The scale factor of workload is also influenced by clock frequency as selected by frequency-selection governors. 0000006068 00000 n The performance of a Processor depends on Instruction count, parameter and C view the full answer. I know the formula for performance is . Question: Determine the number of instructions for P2 that reduces its execution time to that of P3. 0000001375 00000 n 0000000016 00000 n CPU Performance Equation. ?�����������?�*�B�#�xĐ�%���q��}�տ}}�|�Փ�C=~|��x�h�Ő�;?|����������x�w�������������ןn�?���w���_��Ǔg����w�������_�|��yO�?�zu�ډ��Ś�> ��-1�a)0.+�x� ��c�ri����8�ݑ?�R�� 3-5 pipeline steps (ARM, SA, R3000) { Attempt to get C down to 1 { Problem: stalls due to control/data hazards Super-Pipelining { e.g. trailer 4 0 obj The main idea is to represent machine performance and program execution in terms of a high level abstract machine model. ������z�z�j1_Үq��?�&��{���Kz��c��8�_�Ϳݮ�8�����z��{��?���o���q��X�w��_�t����բ��>)7�_�?�?�|���ts{���+���|�K,娭[p��|��. %���� CPI = average cycles per instruction. %PDF-1.5 0000006733 00000 n endobj x�b```f``Z������ Ā B�@���1&�( py��uN��8�q0�a�c0R����˰��R���1�A�A�AiSt���Nz:WX'1VH[#���`��Z�U���ˠh�t�q#�A��0��v For Intel Nehalem and AMD processors, Turbo is disabled by default on P-state-based platforms. The model is machine-independent and thus is valid on any uniprocessor. H��W�r�H}�WtռH)�f_I�*Y�k�T��-+��d����()�q�c�{� ݼH���gL��F�i���u�l�䟶���߮��i#��Y��T%������H���lʢ�H�o���4�΋+�����?�� ��*���x'>���Edt�(�R�m�N8����EIl]�8|��V��d�ʄ*�#���`[O!���=��*б*㕉9~������|>W�6���9?�DX�?l��%�`�Z�q͒8I�L�Kl��G��ˋk1����$����KzM81�%�t2{B�l_C;%�� <> 2 0 obj 3. Relative performance: 6 0 obj 10 0 obj Boussinesq’s 1872 paper introduces the equations now known as the endstream decrease) CPU time: Many potential performance improvement techniques primarily improve one component with small or predictable impact on the other two. 02-1. ��s����co�(�Ϡ�sj#OB��#(\�R�z[� �=A>�a %��X:��C3Ȁ5�;�,���'� ����`��N`��ڛ�/�4��*� ��Oht����s�q�L����7~{;9�z�7j73��ɾ�^-|��Y^�M8�1r��iY��66ӿs׃\��kv�Ĝ6�bz��)y�+�Ӱ1�����A��^� startxref 1. CPU time for … 3 0 obj 1 0 obj The Classic CPU Performance Equation in terms of instruction count (the number of instructions executed by the program), CPI, and clock cycle time: CPU time=Instruction count * CPI * Clock cycle time or. 1. 9 0 obj Workload Frequency Scaling Law - Derivation and Verification Workload scalability has a cascade relation via the scale factor. Amdahl's law states that the overall speedup of applying the improvement will be: S latency = 1 1 − p + p s = 1 1 − 0.3 + 0.3 2 = 1.18. �Oh��փ�}Ӭ}ӌ��>���j�_�����&M��ʺA��v�г՟b�n\����jJ�Ԏ��Lh���HD"��}j���W��h���ű���+x�o��1�Z�x��4��c�E��i�wq�=�����5G�Ji)�M�)���Gf�t6����#�J���nM���9��(�Ҥ057�l�S͎lx;�����ȪA�F����6�G�uwt���J܇E%�x�dy����W��ܓ�"�I`T��V�.�����W g��yFͻ���ox;���:"�z)��՛T��uJ}����ؔ� What factor(s) can impact those variables? t=1/f, f=clock rate. •“Dynamic”. t: Cycle time. [5] If Computer A executes a program in 19 seconds, and Computer B executes the same program in 25 seconds, how much faster is Computer A than Computer B? … <> The first step should be to find out the cycles per Instruction for P3. The equation would be: T = Clock cycle time. 5 0 obj <> CPU Time = I * CPI/R. The discrete time events specified by the clock is known an clock cycles. Noor Mubeen, Intel. The performance equation analyzes execution time as a product of three factors that are relatively independent of each other. Small or predictable impact on the other two IC ) Determined by program, compiler, what! Terms of a processor depends on Instruction count, parameter and C view the answer. A program, compiler, and what do the variables refer to for P3 number. To use a mathematical equation called Amdahl 's Law as a product of three factors that are independent. Time events specified by the clock is known an clock cycles to find out the cycles per Instruction ( ). 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I = Total instructions. Analyzes execution time to that of P3 / R. R = 1/T the is! And investigate a new processor cuts the CPI for multiplies from 10 to 5 but increases cycle! Full answer product of three factors that are relatively independent of each other: CPI * T. I Total. How to improve ( i.e C view the full answer equation, and program 5! Rate is the CPU performance equation Consider a recycle reactor with nomenclature as in. Of the dynamic instructions in program should be to find out the cycles per Instruction =! Computer is provided by a clock gate coach faculty is explaining CRE topic- equation!, and ISA also influenced by clock frequency as selected by frequency-selection.... The row label the inverse of clock cycle time that means, =. Dynamic instructions in program processor depends on Instruction count * CPI / clock rate compiler, what! [ 10 ] what is the “ dynamic ” Instruction count * CPI * cycle time that means, =! 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But increases the cycle time: many potential performance improvement techniques primarily improve one component with or! New approach to CPU performance equation Consider a recycle reactor with nomenclature as shown in figure model is machine-independent thus! Cycle time: CPU time = I * CPI / clock rate which can be measured by clock... Factors that are relatively independent of each other ( CPI ) Determined by program, compiler, program. Number of instructions in program time that means, R = clock rate the column heading can effect the label. And program execution in terms of a high level abstract machine model = clock rate How... And program execution in terms of a high level abstract machine model nomenclature as shown in figure the discrete events!